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Rates Discrepancies are Unethical

Posted by Stella Pascale on Thursday, 15 October 2015 09:41

Practitioners must be aware that it is unethical to charge lesser fees for patients paying out of pocket and higher fees for patients covered by medical insurance.

The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) has recently been inundated with complaints from the public relating to out of pocket payments even when they are covered by medical insurance.

Patients who opt to pay out of pocket for services rendered by practitioners do so because practitioners charge a lesser fee for patients paying out of pocket and a higher fee for patients covered by medical insurance. The HPCSA has also noted that practitioners are reluctant to provide patients who pay out of pocket with account statements. Having noted the above, the HPCSA wishes to guide practitioners on the following legislative framework:

1. Section 53(2) of the Health Professions Act States that: “Any practitioner who in respect of any professional services rendered by him or her claims payment from any person (in this section referred to as the patient) shall, subject to the provisions of the Medical Schemes Act, furnish the patient with a detailed account within a reasonable period”.

2. Section 59(1) of the Medical Schemes Act states as follows: “A supplier of a service who has rendered any service to a member or to a dependant of such a member in terms of which an account has been rendered shall, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, furnish to the member concerned an account or statement reflecting such particulars as may be prescribed”.

3. Section 59(2) of the Medical Schemes Act states that, “a medical scheme shall, in the case where an account has been rendered, subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules of the medical scheme concerned, pay to a member or a supplier of service, any benefit owing to that member or supplier of service within 30 days after the day on which the claim in respect of such benefit.

From the above legislative framework, practitioners are advised as follows:

a. Practitioners should charge the same fees for similar services rendered irrespective of how the patient is going to settle the account. It is unethical to charge lesser fees for patients paying out of pocket and higher fees for patients covered by medical insurance.
b. It is within the rights of patients to use out of pocket payment method even when they are covered by medical insurance and such patients should be provided with a detailed account for services rendered.
c. Where patients opt to use out of pocket payment method for services rendered, it is unethical for practitioners to submit claims to the patient’s medical insurance for the same services.

Practitioners are advised to exercise due diligence in this matter, especially with their administrators or accountants.

Registration at the HPCSA

Posted by Stella Pascale on Thursday, 15 October 2015 09:40

You may not practice without registering with the HPCSA, but there are also many advantages to being part of the healthcare community.

Practitioners whose professions fall within the ambit of the HPCSA are obliged to register. In return, the practitioner can rest assured that the profession is safeguarded.

The role of the HPCSA apart from guiding the professions is to:

a) Confer professional status
· The right to practise your profession
· Ensuring no unqualified person practises your profession
· Recognising you as a competent practitioner who may command a reward for services rendered

b) Setting standards of professional behaviour
· Guiding you on best practices in healthcare delivery
· Contributing to quality standards that promote the health of all South Africans
· Acting against unethical practitioners

c) Ensuring your Continuing Professional Development through:
· Setting and promoting the principles of good practice to be followed throughout your career by keeping you up to date with healthcare trends; and
· Improving client care skills.

Practitioners who are not practising their profession may in terms of section 19(1)(c) of the Health Professions Act 1974 (Act 56 of 1974) request that their name be removed from the relevant register on a voluntary basis. A written request should reach Council before 31 March of the year in which the practitioner wishes his or her name to be removed from the register.

Practitioners relocating to other countries are also required to inform the HPCSA prior to the relocation. Several practitioners do not renew their registration when relocating overseas and as a result practitioners are subject to steep restoration fees, which could be avoided, hence, HPCSA is requesting practitioners inform it in time should a practitioner which to were no longer going practice in South Africa.

Practitioners should at all times inform the HPCSA within 30 days of their change of address as indicated in terms of s18(3) of the Health Professions Act (as amended).

To update your details, please contact the HPCSA Call Centre on 012 338 9300 or info@hpcsa.co.za

Insubordination - May an employee refuse to obey an instruction that falls outside of his or her job description

Posted by Stella Pascale on Friday, 25 September 2015 10:44

Insubordination - May an employee refuse to obey an instruction that falls outside of his or her job description

 

May an employee refuse to obey an instruction that falls outside of his or her job description?

By Neil Coetzer, Senior Associate, Employment Law, Benefits & Industrial Relations, Cowan-Harper Attorneys

 It is a well-known principle of our law that employees have a duty of good faith towards their employer. The duty of good faith is a general duty and encompasses various aspects, including the duty of employees to act in a subordinate manner and comply with the directions and instructions of the employer in regard to their daily duties and work. Employers have, however, developed job descriptions in order to allocate certain tasks to certain positions in order to promote efficiencies and to ensure accountability. To what extent does this impact on an employee’s refusal to perform certain tasks which he or she believes falls outside the scope of their job description? 

In Noosi v Exxaro Matla Coal & Others (unreported case JR291/11, 25 June 2015), the Labour Court recently had the opportunity to deal with the issue of insubordination and confirm an important principle in regard thereto. The case involved an electrician who had refused to obey the instructions of the Senior Foreman (and Head of Maintenance) who had instructed him to cease the operation of a conveyor belt which was operating in dangerous conditions. The employee was subsequently charged with, inter alia, gross insubordination and dismissed. He subsequently referred a dispute to the CCMA where the Commissioner found his dismissal to be fair. 

The employee subsequently took the matter on review where the Labour Court found that the test for insubordination is not whether the instructions fall within the job description of the employee, but rather whether the instructions were reasonable and lawful. In particular, the Court aligned itself with the sentiments expressed in Exxaro Coal Mpumalanga Ltd v CCMA & Others (unreported case JR269/11) where the Court held as follows:- 

“...Should it be shown that the instruction was unlawful, it would be the end of the inquiry. If it is found that the instruction was lawful, the expectation is that the employee to whom such instruction was issued should have complied. It will have little, if any, to do with whether the instruction related to the employee’s job description because it will never be a justification for an employee to refuse lawful instructions merely because the instructions are not his or her direct functions.” 

In any event, the evidence showed that the instruction did fall within the employee’s job description and the employees dismissal was found to be fair. 

Employers should regularly revisit job descriptions to ensure that the day to day responsibilities of employees are contained therein. Nevertheless, as shown by this judgment, employees still have an overriding duty of good faith to their employers, whether the instruction falls within their job description or not and a failure to comply with instructions which are reasonable and lawful may be sufficient grounds for a summary dismissal. 

For more information please contact Neil Coetzer at ncoetzer@chlegal.co.za or (011)  783 8711 /(011) 048 3000

Article published with the kind courtesy of Cowan-Harper Attorneys www.cowanharper.co.za

 

The Professional Board for Dental Therapy and Oral Hygiene - 2015 - 2020

Posted by Stella Pascale on Wednesday, 2 September 2015 21:51

OHASA would like to congratulate the new members of the HPCSA DTO Board 2015 - 2020. Wishing you a successful Term of Office.

This gazette is also available free online at www.gpwonline.co.za

Government Gazette - 28 August 2015 No 39146

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH NO.780 

HEALTH PROFESSIONS ACT, 1974 (ACT NO. 56 OF 1974)

Notice is hereby given in terms of section 15 of the Health Professions Act, 1974 (Act No. 56 of 1974) read with the Regulation Relating to the Nominations and Appointment of Members of a Professional Board, that the following persons have been appointed as members of the Professional Boards of the Health Professions Council of South Africa for a five year term of office, with effect from 01 July 2015 - 30 June 2020.

4. THE PROFESSIONAL BOARD FOR DENTAL THERAPY AND ORAL HYGIENE 

CANDIDATE                                             CATEGORY OF APPOINTMENT

1. Mr Madimetja Johannes Maponyane DENTAL THERAPY
2. Mr. Tufayl Ahmed Muslim   
3. Mr. Thifhelimbilu Watson Muthuphei   
4. Ms. Karen Susan Paulse ORAL HYGIENE
5. Ms. Catharina Rachel Brent  
6. Ms. Natasha Swart  
7. Ms. Tebatso Mphanga DENTAL ASSISTANTS
8. Ms. Pinky Sophie Ramela  
9. Dr. Priscilla Brijlal HIGHER EDUCATION SOUTH AFRICA REPRESENTATIVES
10. Ms. Jeanne Oosthuysen  
11. Ms. Nkhumo Tsebe COMMUNITY REPRESENTATIVES
12. Ms. Hellen Motlanthe  
13. Dr. Johan Smit DEPARTMENTAL REPRESENTATIVE

 

The Impact of Oral Health on Overall Health - Marie Ferreira

Posted by Stella Pascale on Tuesday, 11 August 2015 20:39

World Oral Health Day – 20 March 2015
The Impact of Oral Health on Overall Health
Marie Ferreira
Oral Hygienist
Vice Chairperson Professional Board for Dental Therapy & Oral Hygiene
Did You Know?
 Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent in the world with 70% of the world population thought to be affected by some form of the disease. In addition, up to 900 million people suffer from severe periodontal (gum) disease, which is considered a potential risk factor for severe serious health conditions
 If you smoke you are four times as likely to have periodontal disease as someone who has never smoked
 Pregnant women who have periodontitis, an advanced form of gum disease, may have a seven-fold increased risk of delivering a preterm, low birth weight baby
 Findings suggest that severe periodontitis may be an important risk factor in the progression of diabetes
 Gum disease affects all ages – more than half of all teenagers in the UK have some form of gum disease; 3 out of 4 adults over the age of 35 years suffer from gum disease
 Only 60% of women over the age of 45 can claim to have all their own teeth
 Research suggests that pneumonia can be caused by breathing in bacteria known to cause periodontal disease
What is saliva?
Saliva is a liquid that is produced by our glands, called salivary glands, and released into the mouth. Its role is to keep the mouth moist and to help our bodies swallow food more easily. Saliva also contains enzymes that break down certain types of food. When we sleep, our saliva production rate drops letting our mouths dry out and acid-producing bacteria flourish. So, night-time brushing and rinsing are particularly important to ensure excess bacteria is removed appropriately. When we sleep our salivary glands rest so there is insufficient saliva to wash away bacteria and food debris. This is however a temporary problem, which can be rectified by brushing and flossing regularly and rinsing with an antibacterial mouthwash.
Biofilm (Dental plaque)
Biofilm (dental plaque) is a build-up of various types of bacteria in the mouth. It is a soft white substance that is easily wiped or brushed off the tooth surface. Bacteria are normally present in the mouth, but when their numbers rise too high, we have a problem. Plaque forms within 24 hours of brushing and flossing and, within 48 hours, plaque builds up on the areas that are not brushed and flossed and is easily visible to the naked eye. It starts forming along the gum line and in between the teeth, but in a matter of days can cover a vast surface of the tooth.
Sugars are the main nutrient for the bacteria in plaque. The higher the content of sugar in your diet and more specifically, the longer the sugar is in the mouth, the more rapidly will the bacteria multiply and the greater will be their activity.
Calculus (tartar)
Calculus is a hard deposit and is the result of deposits of calcium and other salts, which are present in normal healthy saliva, within the plaque itself. It is a mineralising process and the speed with which it forms depends on two things:
 How much plaque you leave behind after brushing and flossing
 What the concentration of calcium etc. in saliva is
Calculus consists of up to 80% inorganic salts, mostly crystalline, the major components being calcium and phosphorus. The microscopic structure is basically that of randomly orientated crystal formation. Calculus is invariably associated with periodontal disease. This may be because it is invariably covered by a layer of plaque. Its principal detrimental effect is probably that it acts as a retention site for plaque and bacterial toxins. The presence of calculus makes it difficult to implement adequate oral hygiene.
Disease
Bacteria, viruses and fungi are the cause of disease in the body and bacteria in dental plaque are the cause of tooth and gum disease. Some of the bacteria cause ‘tooth disease’ (tooth decay or caries) and others are the cause of ‘gum disease’. Gum disease is an inflammation that starts in the surface layers of the gum and slowly over time works its way down into the bone around the teeth with various stages of severity, and can be divided into two general categories:
 Gingivitis
 Periodontitis
Gingivitis
This is the first and reversible stage of gum disease. Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums, which means that it become swollen, reddened and bleeds easily when touched. It is a local reaction to the plaque, not an infection. It can be localised or it can affect the entire mouth. Areas not cleaned for more than 48 hours would develop gingivitis. But at this stage it is totally reversible – good brushing and flossing will clear it all up within a few days. Gingivitis hardly causes any discomfort at all, which is why it is so easy to ignore. Even at later stages there is little pain, except in the case of an acute flare up of infection. Smoking somewhat masks the effects of gingivitis, because smoking reduces the blood flow in the smaller veins and arteries and therefore, less bleeding is evident.
Periodontitis
If gingivitis is allowed to continue untreated over a period of time, it may result in an infection, which spread into the lower layers of bone and tooth attaching fibres. Once the infection has progressed to this level and the bone itself is infected, it is called periodontitis. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 10 – 15% of the world population or 600 – 900 million people are suffering from severe periodontal disease.
Pockets
Initially the disease will not be visible from the outside; this is because it manifests first as ‘pockets’ around the teeth. A pocket is the opening next to the tooth which is covered by gum and not visible unless a probe (dental Instrument) is inserted. Such a pocket is usually filled with dental plaque and calculus and other debris and will bleed quite considerably if probed.
The progress of periodontal disease is sometimes so slow that the patient does not even become aware of the various side effects. The teeth become mobile and appear longer as the gum recedes. This is written off to ‘aging’ but it is simply the destructive progress of the disease. There is also a horrible odour that is associated with severe gum disease, but since it develops gradually, the sufferer does not become overly aware of it. On the other hand, the disease progress can be so rapid that tooth loss will occur within a few years. Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial infections that affect the gums and bone supporting the teeth. Studies have shown that oral bacteria can enter the blood stream and can potentially lead to serious health problems.
Potential effect of moderate to severe periodontitis on the body:
 Stroke 2 times
 Chronic respiratory diseases 2 – 5 times
 Coronary artery diseases 2 times
 Adverse pregnancy outcomes 4 – 7 times
 Diabetes 2 – 4 times
While inflammation can help fight disease, that assistance comes at the cost of suspending the body’s normal immune processes. In the short term this is often a legitimate trade-off, but in the long term it causes progressive damage. When inflammation is misdirected, autoimmune diseases may result.
There has been increasing attention paid in recent years to the possibility that oral bacteria and oral inflammation, particularly periodontal disease, may influence the initiation and/or progression of systemic disease processes. This, of course, is not a novel concept. Indeed, the focal-infection hypothesis, which grew from the principles of infectious disease first established by Koch and Pasteur in the mid-19th century, put forth the notion that the invasion of the bloodstream by bacteria from a localized infection (such as periodontal diseases) could spread to distant organs and tissues to cause disease. In fact, this hypothesis was so convincing to practitioners of the time that tonsillectomy and full-mouth extractions enjoyed widespread implementation to treat many diseases, regardless of whether or not infection could be proven to be the cause. However, because it became clear that it was impossible to correlate with confidence a particular systemic disease with a preceding oral infection or dental procedure, the focal-infection hypothesis fell from favour by the middle of the 20th century. Yet, interest in the systemic effects of periodontal disease was reignited in the early 1990’s by a series of case-control and other epidemiologic studies that demonstrated statistical associations between poor oral health and several systemic diseases.
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of coronary artery disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) statistics for 1993 showed cardiovascular disease to be the number-one cause of death in developed countries, accounting for 47% of all deaths in those countries. In 1999, a study was published in a Dental Journal presenting new evidence to suggest that atherosclerosis was associated with inflection and inflammation. This first study tied the herpes viruses to changes in blood vessel walls. Since then, cytomegalo virus (CMV) and C. pneumonia (Cp) have been found in blood vessel walls associated with atherosclerosis. Researchers at the University of Belgrade in Serbia evaluated artery samples for the presence of microorganisms. Samples were taken from 15 patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Involved coronary arteries and mammary arteries used to create the bypass graft were evaluated. Mammary arteries are used for bypass as they seem to be protected from the process of atherosclerosis. No periodontal pathogens were found in the mammary vessel samples. Periodontal pathogens were found in nine of the 15 coronary artery samples (60%). CMV was found in 10 (67%) coronary artery samples and seven (47%) mammary artery samples. Cp was detected in five (33%) coronary artery samples and six (40%) mammary artery samples.
The researchers speculate that since the periodontal pathogens were found in the coronary artery samples and not the mammary samples and CMV and Cp were found in both, the periodontal pathogens may be the more likely bugs to cause atherosclerosis. These findings add to our understanding of the perio/heart-disease link. Establishing and maintaining oral health is important to prevent the movement of oral bacteria to the coronary arteries.
Lung diseases, such as pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) also have been associated with poor oral health. It is possible that dental plaque may serve as a reservoir of infection for respiratory pathogenic bacteria. In subjects stratifies by periodontal attachment loss, those with more severe attachment loss tended to demonstrate less lung function than those with less attachment loss.
There also has been interest in the association between periodontal inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Unfortunately, adverse pregnancy outcome, such as premature birth and low birth weight, are quite common events. During parturition, the uterus is influenced by the hypothalamus through the production of oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contraction. Prostaglandins that are produced by the placenta also stimulate uterine contraction, which normally leads to birth in the 3rd trimester (37 weeks). It is thought that chronic infections drive the inflammatory process, which leads to the release of inappropriate levels of prostaglandins and TNF-a, which prematurely stimulates uterine contraction to promote preterm birth.
It has been suggested that periodontal infection and the release of lipopolysaccharides and other biologically active molecules drive the process of inflammation. This elevates the levels of prostaglandins and TNF-a in the crevicular fluid. Lipopolysaccharides released from the oral cavity into the bloodstream may stimulate prostaglandins in the placenta, causing preterm birth. It is also possible, such as in atherosclerosis, that cytokines in the periodontium may lead to elevated peripheral blood cytokine levels and stimulate hepatic production of acute-phase proteins that may influence the birth process.
Clinical research conducted in the United States indicates that pregnant women who have periodontal disease are seven times more likely to have a baby that is born too early and too small. Low birth-weight babies are more susceptible to breathing problems, anaemia, jaundice, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, congestive heart failure and malnutrition.
Conclusion
Oral Hygienists and Dental Therapists aim to promote quality oral health care. Through clinical services, education, consultative planning and evaluation, they seek to prevent oral diseases, provide treatment for existing diseases and assist people in maintaining an optimal level of oral health. Their primary concerns as primary oral health care practitioners are the promotion of overall health through the prevention of oral diseases.
There is growing acceptance that oral health is an essential component of overall health, renewed emphasis on setting and attaining oral health goals, and increasing recognition that oral hygiene services are an important element in attaining these goals. To reach the highest possible level of oral health, prevention is essential. To improve and maintain good oral health, try to visit your oral health practitioner at least twice to three times a year, because the status of your mouth affects your overall health and wellness.
References
 World Health Organisation http://who.org
 International Federation of Dental Hygienists http://www.ifdh.org

HPCSA - e-Bulletin August 2015

Posted by Stella Pascale on Tuesday, 11 August 2015 20:34

Rates discrepancies are unethical

Practitioners must be aware that it is unethical to charge lesser fees for patients paying out of pocket and higher fees for patients covered by medical insurance.

The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) has recently been inundated with complaints from the public relating to out of pocket payments even when they are covered by medical insurance.

Patients who opt to pay out of pocket for services rendered by practitioners do so because practitioners charge a lesser fee for patients paying out of pocket and a higher fee for patients covered by medical insurance. The HPCSA has also noted that practitioners are reluctant to provide patients who pay out of pocket with account statements. Having noted the above, the HPCSA wishes to guide practitioners on the following legislative framework:

1. Section 53(2) of the Health Professions Act States that: “Any practitioner who in respect of any professional services rendered by him or her claims payment from any person (in this section referred to as the patient) shall, subject to the provisions of the Medical Schemes Act, furnish the patient with a detailed account within a reasonable period”.

2. Section 59(1) of the Medical Schemes Act states as follows: “A supplier of a service who has rendered any service to a member or to a dependant of such a member in terms of which an account has been rendered shall, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, furnish to the member concerned an account or statement reflecting such particulars as may be prescribed”.

3. Section 59(2) of the Medical Schemes Act states that, “a medical scheme shall, in the case where an account has been rendered, subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules of the medical scheme concerned, pay to a member or a supplier of service, any benefit owing to that member or supplier of service within 30 days after the day on which the claim in respect of such benefit.

From the above legislative framework, practitioners are advised as follows:

a. Practitioners should charge the same fees for similar services rendered irrespective of how the patient is going to settle the account. It is unethical to charge lesser fees for patients paying out of pocket and higher fees for patients covered by medical insurance.
b. It is within the rights of patients to use out of pocket payment method even when they are covered by medical insurance and such patients should be provided with a detailed account for services rendered.
c. Where patients opt to use out of pocket payment method for services rendered, it is unethical for practitioners to submit claims to the patient’s medical insurance for the same services.

Practitioners are advised to exercise due diligence in this matter, especially with their administrators or accountants

HPCSA - e-Bulletin August 2015

Posted by Stella Pascale on Tuesday, 11 August 2015 20:33

Caution to Dental Therapists in private practice

The Professional Board of Dental Therapy and Oral Hygiene has noticed that some of the Dental Therapists in private practice are referring themselves as Dental Practitioners. The Board advises those who use the above title to refrain from doing so as it is not permissible and is misleading the public. The correct title to be used is “Dental Therapist’, as there is no provision in the Health Professions Act for the term Dental Practitioner. The Board also emphasises that one of its mandate is to Protect the Public and Guide the Professions. According to the Health Professions Act, 1974 (Act 56 of 1974) Dental Therapy means the profession of a person registered as a Dental Therapist in terms of the Act

HPCSA e-Bulletin August 2015

Posted by Stella Pascale on Tuesday, 11 August 2015 20:29

Phasing out of Board Examination for Student Dental Assistants

The Professional Board for Dental Therapy and Oral Hygiene would like to remind practitioners of the phasing out of the Board examination for student dental assistants.

The requirement for registration as a Dental Assistant is based on the the successful completion of a National Certificate in Dental Assisting from a University of Technology, recognised in terms of sub regulation 1 of the regulations relating to registration of Dental Assistants (DA).

The Board has implemented a Board examination for Student Dental Assistants who are currently registered under the grandfather clause, i.e. registration based on years of experience. The 2015 Board examination was conducted on 15 May 2015. The candidates who were successful in the Board examination were registered as Dental Assistants.

The Board examination tests competency and knowledge of Student Dental Assistants registered under the grandfather clause for registration as Dental Assistants. Qualification certificates will not be issued to candidates who are successful in the examination as the Board is not an education institution. The examination focuses on the application of theoretical knowledge in practice and will also include issues relating to ethics, human rights and HIV/Aids. The Board examination will be phased out in 2016 (last examination will be conducted in 2016) and student Dental Assistants who have not sat for the Board examination by 2016 will be required to enrol for the formal Dental Assisting course at an accredited education institution. It is no longer possible to register as a Student Dental Assistant or a Dental Assistant in terms of the grandfather clause, i.e. registration based on years of experience, since the provision in the regulations for registration in terms of the grandfather clause has expired

Procedure Codes for Oral Hygienists in Independent Practice

Posted by Stella Pascale on Saturday, 23 May 2015 06:19

Procedure Codes for Oral Hygienists' in Independent Practice are attached. If you are unable to download please contact me for a copy at stella1805@gmail.com.

1.The schedule includes procedures and services for use by Oral Hygienists practising independently for purposes of keeping accurate patient records, reporting procedures on patients, and processing oral health care related insurance claims.


2.The procedures codes listed in the schedule have, for the convenience in using the schedule, been divided into categories of services, and based on the branches of clinical oral hygienist practice. The procedures are grouped under the category of service with which the procedures are most frequently identified. Individual procedure codes consist of a procedure code, procedure description (nomenclature), and when necessary, a descriptor, that provides further definition and/or guidelines to clarify the intended use of the procedure code.


3.The guidelines do not include any fees. Each oral hygienist will have to calculate his/her own fees.


4.Coding rules and guidelines apply irrespective of whether oral hygienists deal directly with medical schemes and/or funders or not.


5.A numeric index will appear at the end of this guideline document.

Dental Protection Insurance can be obtained via The South African Dental Association

 


Attachments:

Untitled 401.1K 23 May 15 06:19

Single Tooth Rubberdam Template

Posted by System Admin on Tuesday, 28 April 2015 09:31


Attachments:

Single_Tooth.png 505.6K 28 Apr 15 09:31

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